How To Train For Longevity

Longevity is a buzzword in the wellness industry, but what does it really mean? When the physical therapists talk about longevity at Made 2 Move, they are not just speaking on the quantity of life but also on the quality. Longevity encompasses our ability to move, think, and live functionally and optimally throughout our lifetime. It sounds cheesy, but longevity is one of the main reasons we aim to get you to your BEST at Made 2 Move. Ideally, we would want to be 80 years old and still be doing triathlons and hitting PR’s. But at the very least, we want to maintain our independence in seemingly elementary tasks like carrying groceries, getting on and off the toilet, and playing with our kids/grandkids. Below we have highlighted some training principles that aid in longevity:



1. Strength Training

There are many benefits to strength training at all stages of life. Our Made 2 Move Strength Club has athletes ranging from teenagers to grandparents! As we age, the development and maintenance of muscle mass becomes even more important in counteracting illness, maintaining bone density, preventing falls, decreasing the rate of neuromuscular and balance deterioration, and improving overall wellbeing.

It is crucial to understand their specific goals when it comes to strength training. Strength training for muscular adaptation involves appropriately surpassing your baseline tolerance so that strength gains can be evoked. However, when strength training for longevity, it is important not to surpass physical or psychological tolerances (Bergeron 2020). While younger athletes training for peak performance require a push past these tolerances to evoke muscular adaptation, it is not as necessary for someone simplifying trying to attain or maintain general physical fitness. It is important to acknowledge that strength training does not have to include consistently training at maximal work levels (hitting PR’s) in order to be effective.

When programming for longevity at Made 2 Move, individualization becomes more important and periodization becomes less important. Strength training for longevity should be highly individualized, so as to accommodate each particular person and allow for modifications among varying ability levels (Maren et. al 2019).

The utilization of periodization in our higher level or sport specific Made 2 Move athletes is sensible because these athletes are working towards achieving peak performance at a race, game, or competition. Periodization becomes less important when training for longevity, because there is not a peak performance, in terms of a sport, that the individual is working towards.

With periodization being less important, this does not mean that progressive overload, a concept used in almost every Made 2 Move session, can be ignored. Progressive overload is still going to be necessary for muscular adaptation, and this is best done through increasing resistance or load (Lorenz et. al 2010). Progressive overload is also desirable when training for longevity because it motivates individuals when there is notable, tangible progress in their exercise programs, and this is also more likely to encourage long term maintenance of the training plan.



2. Avoid Stress Overload and Overtraining

It is important to consider the fact that exercise is a stressor that is perceived by the body the same way as the other stressors in our life. These outside stressors (financial, professional, physical, emotional) tend to be present in greater amounts in adults, as most people have greater responsibilities during adulthood than they did during adolescence. Therefore, when training for longevity, the intensity and frequency of sessions must be gauged with this in mind.

Ensuring adequate recovery time between sessions, incorporating myofascial release, like foam rolling, into your warmup and cool down, and adjusting training parameters based upon stressload are crucial when training for longevity. Incorporating breathwork into the end of training sessions is also an overlooked tool that greatly assists in the management of overall stress. With myofascial release, it is important to remember that this is a great method to supplement training and combat muscle soreness, but it should not be utilized as a standalone. Rather, it should be treated like a tool that opens up the window for good movement and mobility.


3. Emphasize mobility/working range of motion through all joints

In addition to resistance training coupled with adequate recovery periods, mobility is an aspect of training that must be prioritized. Dr. Satariano of U.C. Berkely states,“Optimal health is being able to safely and reliably go where you want to go when you want to go, and it is a key component of healthy aging.”

Data has also shown that in terms of mobility, shoulder, trunk, and hip mobility, start to decline the most rapidly in the fourth and fifth decades of life (Medeiros et al. 2013). It doesn’t have to be this way though! Our Made 2 Move team has seen incredible sterngth and mobility gains in patients in their 60s and 70s. Because movement through the hips, core, and shoulders are areas critical for independence and functionality, mobility and strength through these areas are emphasized and incorporated more heavily in training programs at Made 2 Move.


4. Hone in to the Hips

Do movements, preferably loaded ones, that involve some sort of hip hinge. This will translate into simple tasks we don’t think about like getting up off the ground and going from seated to standing and vice versa. Sound hip flexion and hip extension are critical for effortless tasks like bending over to tie our shoes, so this “hip hinge” pattern of movement should be trained often to ensure functionality throughout our lifetimes. Movements like the deadlift, squat, kettlebell swing, and good mornings are exercises that work the hip hinge and translate into daily movement patterns outside of the gym.

Moving loads through large ranges of motion is also going to aid in developing our midline stabilization and core to extremity movement patterns (Bergeron 2020). What does this mean? When training the hip hinge, the core is also simultaneously being strengthened, which will protect the lower back and make all movements through our legs more fluid. Simply put, move large external loads through a large range of motion, and do it at a relatively fast pace (Bergeron 2020) in order to maintain adequate hip functionality.


5. Move Things

Think: Pushes, pulls, carries. These types of movements mimic the activities we do daily while simultaneously working midline stability, muscular strength, and cardiovascular endurance. Farmers carry, prowler pushes, and sled work are great examples of these movements.

Moving things from Point A to Point B is arguably one of most valuable indicators of functional movement and health, so training this in the gym is a valuable asset in terms of longevity (Bergeron 2020). Think about walking: this is simple displacement but it is one of the first things to deteriorate as we age. Studies have shown that 31.7% of adults over the age of 65 report difficulty in walking just 3 city blocks (Satariano et. al 2012). We want our Made 2 Move patients over 65 to be able to RUN 3 city blocks with ease!

Therefore, moving things from Point A to Point B under load will make moving your body from Point A to Point B feel effortless. If you pull a sled or push a prowler at the gym, then walking long distances or hiking with your kids will be a breeze. Carrying dumbbells in the gym will make carrying groceries and moving boxes into your new house feel like a piece of cake. And they are movements that can be progressively overloaded very simplistically. Farmers carry with 40 lb dumbbells too light? Try carrying 50 lbs the next session.


Key Takeaway:

At a certain point, when our life goals shift away from being a competitive or sport specific athlete, our training goals must also shift. Training for longevity is a direction in which we can shift our focus so that we can maintain functionality and quality of life as we age. Programming should include displacement under loads ( think pushing, pulling, or carrying heavy things as we move), coupled with strength and mobility work, especially through the hips and shoulders.

These training patterns, with the help of sufficient recovery time, will assist in our fluidity of movement as we age, and will increase the likelihood of us continuing to hit PR’s when we are 80 years old! Interested in a training program for longevity? Reach out to frontdesk@made2movept.com today to come in and get a program specifically tailored to your needs!

References

Bergeron, Ben (Producer). 2020, August 31). Chasing Excellence [Audio Podcast]. Retrieved form URL.

Fragala, Maren S.1; Cadore, Eduardo L.2; Dorgo, Sandor3; Izquierdo, Mikel4; Kraemer, William J.5; Peterson, Mark D.6; Ryan, Eric D.7 Resistance Training for Older Adults: Position Statement From the National Strength and Conditioning Association, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: August 2019 - Volume 33 - Issue 8 - p 2019-2052 doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003230

Jesse C. Dean, Arthur D. Kuo, Neil B. Alexander, Age-Related Changes in Maximal Hip Strength and Movement Speed, The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, Volume 59, Issue 3, March 2004, Pages M286–M292, https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/59.3.M286

Lorenz, Daniel S et al. “Periodization: current review and suggested implementation for athletic rehabilitation.” Sports health vol. 2,6 (2010): 509-18. doi:10.1177/1941738110375910

Medeiros, Hugo Baptista de Oliveira et al. “Age-related mobility loss is joint-specific: an analysis from 6,000 Flexitest results.” Age (Dordrecht, Netherlands) vol. 35,6 (2013): 2399-407. doi:10.1007/s11357-013-9525-z

O'Keefe JH, Franklin B, Lavie CJ. Exercising for health and longevity vs peak performance: different regimens for different goals. Mayo Clin Proc. 2014;89(9):1171-1175. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.07.007

Satariano, William A et al. “Mobility and aging: new directions for public health action.” American journal of public health vol. 102,8 (2012): 1508-15. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300631